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Glomerular Diseases

Glomerular Diseases

Glomerular diseases, also known as glomerulonephritis, refer to a group of conditions that affect the glomeruli, which are the tiny filtering units present in our kidneys. These diseases can lead to inflammation and damage to the glomeruli, impacting the kidneys' ability to filter waste and excess fluids from the blood. Glomerular diseases can be acute or chronic and may result from various causes, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and genetic factors.

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Here are some common types of glomerular diseases:

IgA Nephropathy (Berger’s Disease):

IgA nephropathy is one of the most common forms of glomerulonephritis. It occurs when immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposits build up in the glomeruli, leading to inflammation and damage. It can progress slowly over many years and may be associated with episodes of visible blood in the urine.

Membranous Nephropathy:

In membranous nephropathy, thickening of the glomerular basement membrane occurs due to the deposition of immune complexes. It is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome, characterized by proteinuria, edema, and hypoalbuminemia.

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS):

FSGS is characterized by scarring (sclerosis) in some of the glomeruli. It can be primary (idiopathic) or secondary to other conditions. FSGS is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults and can lead to kidney failure over time.

Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (MPGN):

MPGN is characterized by both inflammation and changes in the structure of the glomeruli. It can be classified into different types based on the underlying cause, and it often leads to nephrotic syndrome or nephritic syndrome.

Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis:

This type of glomerulonephritis often follows a streptococcal infection, such as strep throat or impetigo. It is more common in children and typically presents with symptoms such as hematuria, proteinuria, and hypertension.

Lupus Nephritis:

Lupus nephritis is a kidney inflammation that occurs as a complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease. Immune complexes deposit in the glomeruli, leading to inflammation and damage.

Anti-GBM (Goodpasture’s) Disease:

Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease is a rare autoimmune disorder where antibodies target the glomerular basement membrane, leading to inflammation and damage. It can cause rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and lung involvement.

Management of glomerular diseases: 

It involves addressing the underlying cause, controlling symptoms, and preventing complications. Regular monitoring and follow-up are crucial for assessing the progression of the disease and adjusting the treatment plan accordingly. Our nephrologist may prescribe medications to reduce inflammation, manage blood pressure, and control immune system activity. In some cases, individuals with advanced glomerular diseases may require kidney transplantation. 

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